Floor mining is used for an estimated 40% of coal production. Used machinery gear can be used to extract coal. Extracting coal is cheaper if it's discovered near the surface. As soon as coal is extracted, the topsoil is then replaced and native bushes and vegetation is planted to restore the unique condition. There are three various kinds of surface mining: contour, strip, and mountaintop removal mining.
1- Contour Mining: Contour Mining is most commonly utilized in areas which have steep or rolling terrain. It includes digging the earth above the coal line, or coal seam, alongside the contours of the hilly terrain. This technique could be harmful because it could cause landslides and erosion problems.
2- Strip Mining: Strip Mining often happens on flat terrain. The earth is dug up in long cuts or strips until the coal seam is exposed. After the strip has been drilled and blasted and all of the coal has been eliminated, a new strip is created proper subsequent to it and the process continues.
three- Mountaintop Removal Mining: Mountaintop Removal Mining involves using a mix of Contour Mining and Strip Mining. The mountaintops are eliminated to reveal the Coal Mining Permits
beneath and the coal is extracted.
Belowground Mining Methods
If the coal seams are too deep underneathground, then deep beneathground mining is necessary. Deep belowground mining methods embody Steady, Longwall, Blast, Retreat Mining and Shortwall Mining.
o Steady Mining: A machine that has a big rotating steel drum with tungsten carbide teeth scrapes coal from the seam. Conveyors are used to transport the eliminated coal. About 5 tons of coal might be mined per minute. Accounts for about 45% of belowground coal production.
o Longwall Mining: A sophisticated machine that has a rotating drum that mechanically strikes back and forth along the seam. Loosened coal falls on the pan line which takes the coal to the conveyor belt. Accounts for about 50% of coal production.
o Blast: An older mining methodology that uses dynamite and explosives to interrupt away the coal seam. Accounts for lower than 5% of coal production.
o Retreat Mining: Some of the harmful coal mining methods. Pillars are used to hold up the mine roof as coal is extracted. The pillars collapse as miners retreat.
o Shortwall Mining: Much like longwall mining. Uses a steady mining machine with moveable roof supports. The machine shears coal panels about 2.0 feet broad and half a mile long.